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The Scrolls were from the library of the monastic Essenes – a Jewish sect in Israel.
During the First Jewish Revolt from 66AD to 73AD, the Essenes hid their valuables and fled from the Roman army. About 190 of the 800 scrolls were from every book of the Hebrew Bible, except the book of Esther.
At the time of the discovery of the Scrolls the area was controlled by Jordan. Then the team divided the 500 different texts among themselves for publication – an act of enormous scholarly pride and greed, because this was far more work than anyone could possibly have completed in a lifetime.
Scribes worked at this task from the earliest days.
The Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in the years 1947 to 1956, in eleven caves near Qumran, have answered that question. They are 1000 years older than previously used manuscripts — and yet the text shows no deviation.